Companies Should Think Before Putting Their “Heads” Into Cloud Computing!

Companies Should Think Before Putting Their “Heads” Into the Cloud!

August 20, 2010| Law & Forensics
Part 1 of 1

Daniel B. Garrie, is the  Senior Managing Partner  at Law & Forensics LLC and works out of the Seattle, Los Angeles, and New York offices. He focuses on e-discovery, digital forensics, cyber security and warfare, data privacy, and predicitive coding working with law firms, governments, companies, and non-profits globally. 

Before adopting or deploying cloud based solutions for your enterprise, or for a specific litigation matter, client and counsel should carefully evaluate these six issues, including comprehensive conversations with the IT, business and legal units. Otherwise, the company and the firm may be exposed to unanticipated and unnecessary risks and costs.

What is cloud computing? Cloud computing is a general term for the delivery of hosting and other services over the Internet. Instead of storing data in-house , the data and data applications are stored remotely, with access to the data provided via the Internet (the “cloud” in “cloud computing”). Whatever the specific form, the singular characteristic of cloud computing is separation of the computer hardware from the service. The major advantage of a cloud computing solution is its elasticity- the consumer is charged by use, can make as little or as much use of the service as desired, and need not purchase, maintain, or upgrade any computer hardware. Once data is hosted in the cloud, all the consumer needs is a personal computer and access to the Internet. Some of the many players in this space include Amazon(NASDAQ:AMZN), Google(NASDAQ:GOOG), Yahoo!(NASDAQ:YHOO), Hewlett-Packard (NYSE:HPQ), Microsoft(NASDAQ:MSFT) and others all offering some flavor of Cloud Computing to corporations today, and, it is certain that others are to follow.

Several aspects of cloud computing significantly impact electronic discovery. Accordingly, these issues must be known and understood by both client and counsel before electronic discovery (e-discovery) commences. Indeed, these issues ideally should be considered by the client in deciding whether “cloud computing” is an appropriate choice for the company.

First, while “cloud’ references provide a useful metaphorical tool, in reality the data still sits on a server somewhere. Care should be taken to ensure that this physical location, and the electronic security protecting the data residing on the server, is appropriate and sufficiently robust One aspect of turning hosting duties over to a third-party is that you lose control over these security and data protection issues, as some or all of those security and protection duties devolve to the hosting company. Not all “clouds” are the same, and you should make sure you understand the security parameters and limitations of your particular cloud. See   Google’s LA cloud turns into a summer squall (discussing Google cloud security issues relating to contract with City of Los Angeles) (URL:, last visited 8/12/2010)

Likewise, if you are storing data in a cloud as part of a complex and sensitive litigation, it is critical that counsel understands who else is storing data in the cloud, and learns how the system is designed to ensure that the risk of commingling or unauthorized access to the data is negligible. Often, there are economies of scale in having all electronic discovery from all parties in a lawsuit hosted on the same cloud, and accessed by a single service provider. But these benefits will rarely outweigh a security breach that leads to the loss of, or the unintended sharing and commingling of, information. Here, counsel might consider retaining an independent technologist to review and assess the cloud’s security protocols and systems to ensure that they are not unnecessarily placing the client’s data at risk.

Second, the information that sits in the cloud is not all necessary searchable. It is possible that data sits in the cloud, but that the cloud lacks the necessary search component required to search and retrieve that data. For example, the information may be stored in a unique format proprietary to the client that is not recognized by the cloud. This in turn means that a client may find it impossible to readily access that information. It also means that, when counsel seeks to effectuate a production and collect responsive information during litigation, the resulting data set will not include any information from those files, possibly without counsel being aware that certain data exists that has not been searched and collected. Therefore, it is imperative that, before counsel works with cloud based systems, they make the inquiries necessary to establish the format(s) of the data stored in the cloud and confirm that all the data in the cloud can be searched and produced.

Third, while cloud computing presents a compelling business value proposition, we would recommend that prior to adopting such cloud based technology, a company consider cloud evaporation scenarios and how they might impact the company and any pending litigations. Here, for example, are three unanticipated cloud evaporation scenarios we have seen occur: your cloud is acquired by a competitor and you need to migrate the data in the cloud out of the cloud to another cloud or internal system; the cloud goes
bankrupt causing the cloud to evaporate and with it your data, if you don’t migrate it out or, if possible, purchase the machines in the cloud; the cloud provider has a security breach and the data stored in the cloud is compromised requiring either migration to a new cloud or system and an information audit. In all three “evaporation” scenarios, companies are suddenly required to make quick and likely expensive decisions with potentially far reaching consequences for the security of their data. In addition, all three scenarios invite potential challenges to chain of custody, particularly in the event of a security breach. Considering these
and other evaporation scenarios now, rather than in the heat of the moment, will help prevent such events from wreaking havoc on the company and any attendant litigations. While it is unlikely that Google, Microsoft, Yahoo!, Amazon, or Hewlett-Packard would disappear overnight, it is important that companies consider this when assessing a move to the Cloud.

Fourth, cloud based systems present novel privilege issues. All privileges are founded on restricted access. Should privileged information be shared with a third-party , the privilege vanishes. Usually, privilege is readily maintained because a company’s sensitive information remains in-house in the company, until it is shared with outside counsel to whom the privilege still applies as part of the litigation. Cloud computing, however, necessarily involves migrating data outside the company and to a third-party host. Quite apart from any catastrophic breach in the cloud, it is likely that the specific elements of privilege, and the importance of maintaining that privilege, will not be as understood or appreciated by those that manage the cloud infrastructure on your behalf. Extra care must be taken to ensure that the data managed is not accidentally accessed by a third-party or by a
system administrator accessing privileged data in the context of resolving a technology issue. See Hedge Fund Owner in Rothstein Case Agrees to Surrender Bulk of Assets (discussing issues of privilege involving Qtask a cloud computing firm) (URL:, last visited 8/12/2010).

Fifth, cloud based computing represents an attractive value proposition, but look for hidden costs that might arise as a result of the size of the data set, the difficulty of retrieval, or the need to repeatedly access and manipulate the data hosted on the cloud. It may make sense to migrate only a portion of a company’s data to a cloud based computing system, while retaining in-house control over other areas of information. See Six Costly Cloud Mistakes (stating that the savings from cloud computing may be
considerably less than expected if you don’t avoid these missteps) (URL:, last visited 8/12/2010).

Sixth, litigations may continue to the point that the cloud no longer actively supports the data format in which your information is stored in the cloud. The issue then arises as to how you deal with the upgrade, and the impact of any such upgrade on the required preservation of that data. For instance, may upgrades may limit or eliminate the types of metadata that can be extracted during production, leading to potential spoliation claims by your adversary.

Before adopting or deploying cloud based solutions for your enterprise, or for a specific litigation matter, client and counsel should carefully evaluate these six issues, including comprehensive conversations with the IT, business and legal units. Otherwise, the company and the firm may be exposed to unanticipated and unnecessary risks and costs.

YOAV M. GRIVER is a partner in the New York office of Zeichner Ellman & Krause, where he concentrates his legal practice on litigation. He can be reached at The thoughts expressed herein are solely his own and not those of the firm.

DANIEL B. GARRIE, Esq. has a B.A. and M.A. in computer science. He is an e-discovery neutral and special master with Alternative Resolution Centers. He also serves as ediscovery advisor to Digital Reef, Inc. He can be reached at